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italian destroyers ww2

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The Italian Navy played an important role for the Axis powers in the Mediterranean Theater during the early part of World War 2 - but faltered later in the conflict. Three ships received two single 37mm anti-aircraft guns, which replaced the single 120mm (where installed) and the aft torpedo tube mountings. Leone Memorable Flag. They were reclassified as destroyers in 1938. The single 120mm gun mounting was changed to a twin in 1929 and an additional twin mount was installed sometime before 1942. Tank destroyers & SPGs. Eight participated in WW1, the rest being discarded before. [2] As completed, these ships had a single 120 millimetre (4.7 inch) gun, four 533 millimetre (21 inch) torpedo tubes, two 40 millimetre and two 13.2 millimetre guns. The class comprised the Calatafimi (1923), Castelfidardo (1922), Curtatone (1922) and Monzambano (1923). The Aquila were sold to Romania and Spain, the others participated actively in WW2. They were doing well on the armament plan while being smaller. Engines and armament, as completed, were unchanged from the Dardos, but a later version of the 120mm gun was used, the O.T.O. Italy joined the war as one of the Axis Powers in 1940, as the French Third Republic surrendered, with a plan to concentrate Italian forces on a major offensive against the … They helped keep the supply lines from Italy to Tunisia open so that the Axis army in North Africa could be maintained and they helped restrict Allied use of the central Mediterranean for most of the war, at least until the surrender of the Afrika Corps. The chosen answer were 20 millimetre cannon and, in some individual ships, 37 millimetre guns replaced torpedo tubes. 12 ships were planned in total. After an abortive mission against Port Sudan, Pantera was sunk by carrier-based Swordfish aircraft and Tigre was later scuttled. Displacement was increased thereby and speed significantly reduced. [15], The first batch took the Oriani design, with some modifications giving an increased displacement of 1,645 tonnes. The third issue covers WW1 armored vehicles — Hotchkiss Htk46 and Schneider CA and CD in Italian Service. Two were lost before the Italian surrender, one torpedoed and one lost in a storm; one, under repair at the surrender was scuttled to avoid German capture. Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now ! The Italian Army in East Africa (Africa Orientale ltaliana or AOI) was impressive on paper with 88,000 Italian and 200,000 colonial troops but there were many weaknesses. General appearance of the Soldati class. In World War Two this class was used mainly to escort the major units in the fleet service, and this fact reduced the losses during the war respect to other destroyer classes. [14], Nineteen Soldati were built in two batches; twelve commissioned between August 1938 and May 1939 and the second batch of five between February and August 1942. Equivalent Italian classes were rather old (Leone/Mirabello/Aquila), while the 1930s Esploratori, or “Navigatori” class, just had one more twin turret and, lower tonnage, speed and capabilities in comparison. During the war, old AA artillery was sacrificed and four 20mm Breda twin mounts were added, and two ASW grenade launchers. In use, the class proved to be unreliable. The spoils include 33,000 POW’s, roughly 2,000 vehicles, 30 tanks, 400 guns, and much-needed fuel. The Soldati. They were no more reliable or seaworthy than their earlier sisters. They helped keep the supply lines from Italy to Tunisia open so that the Axis army in North Africa could be maintained and they helped restrict Allied use of the central Mediterranean for most of the war, at least until the surrender of the Afrika Corps. 24 June – France falls to Germany. There were 19 ships built in this class up to 1943, along with along with 11 other classes and the fact that there were 2 batches of this ship class that had minor differences. Some well known Italian tanks of WW2 … [9], As originally built, the Navigatori ships were insufficiently stable and too wet. None of this class were ever launched, only nine were laid down. The design was modified to incorporate war experience and their hulled was lengthened by 4.5 m. The ships were modernized as escort vessels during the war with single mounts, and the triple 450 mm torpedo tubes replaced by twin 533 mm ones, plus additional Breda 13mm heavy MGs while the old 76 mm/40 AA guns were removed. In addition, Turbine had one triple torpedo tube mounting replaced by a 37mm gun. Two more 20mm and two depth charge throwers were added. [7], The four destroyers were based in the Red Sea to defend Italian Somaliland. Part of these were dating back from WW1, and were reclassified as torpedo-boats due to their range, tonnage and armement, while others, 1918 to 1921 destroyer leaders were almost light cruisers. Aquila (a reference to the Roman Eagle) was launched in July 1916 and fought during WW1 whereas Falco (another bird of prey adulated by the ancient Romans) was delayed and launched after the war in August 1919. Leone Memorable Flag. The Oriani group, launched in 1936 and completed in 1937, were hardly different, except for the machine power, which allowed them a better speed. Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot (23 mph) warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships. The Oriani was transferred to France after the war, renamed D’Estaing, and removed from the lists in 1954. Italian Tier VI Destroyer 1924. The only significant naval engagement between the two was the former Curtatone-class Catalafimi pitted against French cruisers and destroyer leaders in front of Genoa and Vado. 1931 Pattern (, 120 millimetre (4.7 inch), 1936 & 1937 Patterns (Soldati, 1st group), 120 millimetre (4.7 inch), 50 calibre Ansaldo 1940 Pattern (some Soldati, 1st group), 120 millimetre (4.7 inch), 15 calibre star-shell gun, 533 millimetres (21 inch) (Navigatori, Soldati). Italian destroyers were usually organised into Squadriglie (Destroyer Squadrons) of four ships, same class. SpecificationsDisplacement 1,040 t. standard -1 575 t. Full LoadDimensions 90 m long, 9.2 m wide, 2.9 m draftMachines 2 propellers, 2 Parsons turbines, 3 Thonrycroft boilers, 36,000 hp.Maximum speed 35 knotsArmament 4 x 120mm (2 × 2), 2 x 40mm, 2 x 13.2mm AA, 6 x 533 mm (2 × 3) TTsCrew 155. They had a lot of different jobs. The Palestro-derived designs Sella & Sauro classes (8, 1925) and Turbine class (8, 1927) combined shielded twin mounted for 4.7in (120 mm) guns, and went from two twin TT banks to to triple ones. Audace, the first of this name was sunk in 1916. As completed, the anti-aircraft battery consisted of twelve machine guns. The remaining two ships were not completed before the surrender; one was scrapped while under construction and the final one was completed under German colours. 4pk sprue HMS Begonia corvette 1:2400 WW2 $ 34.00. WW2 Italian Destroyers were still called cacciatorpediniere, “torpedo boat hunters”, the equivalent of French contre-torpilleur or general torpedo-boat destroyer, later simpified as “destroyer”. HMS Delhi (masts) 1:1800 WW2 naval cruiser $ 16.35. Ontdek de perfecte stockfoto's over Destroyer en redactionele nieuwsbeelden van Getty Images Kies uit premium Destroyer van de hoogste kwaliteit. ASW, ASuW, AA and missile strike are all in their arsenal. Both served for most of the interwar before being transferred to the Spanish Nationalist Fleet (Armada) in 1939, being renamed, respectively, Melilla and Ceuta. The later ships were primarily employed as fleet escorts, but not exclusively so. Specifications Déplacement 1 690 t. standard -2 250 t. Pleine Charge Dimensions 106,7 m long, 10,15 m large, 3,5 m de tirant d’eau Machines 2 hélices, 2 turbines Belluzo/Parsons, 3 chaudières Yarrow, 48 000 cv. [10], At the start of Italy's war, the four ships formed the 7th Squadron based at Taranto and they were at the Battle of Calabria. Luca Tarigo, Navigatori class prewar, showing its straight prow, later rebuilt as a clipper one. During service, efforts were made to improve the potency of the anti-aircraft weaponry; 40mm and 13.2 mm guns were replaced by newer 20mm ones and subsequently increased in number, two 37mm anti aircraft were installed in place of a torpedo tube mounting. Leone ran aground and was sunk by her sisters. Specifications Displacement 1,900 t. standard -2,580 t. Full Load Dimensions 109.30 m long, 11 m wide, 3.40 m draft Machines 2 propellers, 2 Parsons turbines, 8 Tosi boilers, 50,000 hp. Destroyers, in particular, were utility ships in all the navies of World War II. 10 Soldati destroyers were sunk during WW2, with most of the survivors being put into service with the post-war Italian navy or being given as war reparation to countries like the Soviet Union or France. Not only was the weight of armour increased by 24 per cent compared with d'Aosta, now totalling some 2,131 tons, but it was also distributed ih a different manner. Apart from Nicolo Zeno, scuttled in 1943, all these ships were sunk in operations. [3], Three Leone-class "exploratori" were commissioned in 1924. In the interwar, destroyer design progressed steadily. The Admiralty decided that the Oriani/Maestrale formed the best base for a new series of improved destroyers. Apr 28, 2019 - Italian armor of WW2. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. One of the ship's features was 8 main battery guns placed in 4 twin mounts. This was the only wartime Italian destroyer class, which is pale in comparison of the figures showed by the Royal Navy or US Navy, but approached German figures. The Turbine class (8 ships) was still very close to the previous Sauro/Sella, except for a larger size and displacement due to more powerful machinery, 2 propeller shafts connected to Parsons steam turbines, powered by three Thornycroft boilers for a total of 40,000 hp and a top speed of 36 knots. Camouflaged Monzanbano during the war – kit box art from http://stormomagazine.com. Italian Aquilone destroyer WW2 1:2400 (B4CYXPH67) by fspacerpg on Shapeways. It's the wreckage of the Italian destroyer: Artigliere RM. One torpedo tube mounting was replaced by two 37mm guns; 20mm cannon, a 120mm star-shell gun and depth charge throwers were also installed. Your email address will not be published. The Mirabello was sunk by a mine in 1941. Pola, still adrift, was found in the dark by destroyers and sunk by torpedoes from ]ervis and Nubian. They also spent much of their time escorting north African convoys, on which duties they were all lost before the Italian surrender. In WW2/WW1 they would have been Cruiser classes. The destroyers of the Sirtori classes (4 ships, 1917), and La Masa (8 ships, 1917-18-19), were assigned to the same tasks. Eight 4.7 inch (120 millimetres - the new standard for Italian destroyers) were mounted in four twin turrets and torpedo tubes were now 21 inch. Forced to fast emersion in the Strait of Perim, the Italian submarine accepted the unfair gun engagement against three English destroyers (Kartoum, Kandahar and Kingstone) and one gunboat, Shoreham. In operations, these destroyers proved their effectiveness, being able to withstand many hits without much damage, but very vulnerable to air attacks, because, as for the other Italian destroyers, they were given an initial too weak AA in comparison with of that of the Germans or allies. In 1942-43, they gave up their rear torpedo tube bank for an additional battery for two 37mm cannons and three 20mm double mounts. The list includes armed vessels that served during the war and in the immediate aftermath, inclusive of localized ongoing combat operations, garrison surrenders, post-surrender occupation, colony … To balance the Italian threat, the 600-ton La Melpoméne class was a group of 13 French torpedo boats built in 1933. After the end of World War I, there was little need for the destroyers built, so many were laid up, and fourteen had their torpedo tubes removed and were converted to minesweepers. They had the same modifications of AA artillery as the Maestrale, and were sunk in operation: the Alfieri and the Carducci during the battle of Cap Matapan, the Gioberti in 1943, torpedoed by HMS Simoon. They carried 270 tons of fuel oil. In action, Calatafimi fought French ships during operation Vado, but was Captured by the Germans at Pireus in September 1943 (TA19) and was sunk by Greek submarine Pipinos in August 1944 in the Aegean Sea. [13], Although mainly used as fleet escorts, these ships also laid minefields and escorted convoys, during one such duty, they missed the Battle of Calabria and were never involved in a major fleet action. The class used two sizes of torpedoes, in two triple banks, each unusually composed of two 533mm (21 in) separated by one 450mm (17.7 in). Illustration of the Navigatori class by the author. Jeep of a two-star general is parked to the right. In the last Royal Navy destroyer action of the Mediterranean, torpedo boats "TA-24" and "TA-29" were sun k. The various successful engagements by Italian armored divisions are mainly due to the courage of the tank crews in aggressively engaging a superior force. They formed, without a doubt, the backbone of the Italian navy right up to Italy’s surrender in late 1943. But the development of the fascist corporate state in the 1920s saw a revival of the influence of the Army. The machinery remained substantially unchanged and, consequentially, the Sauros were no more reliable. Grecale in 1942, rear view – Associazione Venus. The Turbine served the longest. WW1 Italian destroyers in action Curtatone class (1920). The Sella were based at the island of Leros, in the Dodecanese. And these figures suffered in wartime after heavy use. Required fields are marked *. In 1941, the appropriately named Scirocco foundered in a storm off Cape Spartivento. Poor stability and engine reliability were serious problems when the ships entered service and remedies were attempted which, in turn, led to fuel contamination. Both also had a long career during and after the war. This was reflected in the design and construction of its warships, which did not need to withstand open ocean conditions. It was designed along the lines of the Italian torpedo boats of that time, but due to its size and speed of 34.5 knots, the class is considered a light destroyer, or destroyer escort. Aside these, Italy also built in wartime impressive destroyer leaders: The three Alessandro poerio type (1216 tons, 1914), the three Mirabello class (1972 tons, 1915), the four Aquila (1733 tons, 1917-19), and the most impressive of them all, the postwar Leone class (2289 tons, 3 ships 1923-24). As a result, the same modifications were applied. And when speaking of TBs, MAS boats are more often cited. Before the end of the war, one ship, Oriani had German Seetakt radar and additional 20mm cannon. There will be a dedicated post about them soon. At one end, a torpedo boat design was developed into a series of destroyer classes (Sella, Sauro and Turbine) that were comparable with their British contemporaries. It should be noted that many Italian DDs ended in German hands, as the Kriegsmarine desperately needed them for local operations. The obsolete 40mm anti-aircraft guns were finally discontinued, being replaced by extra 13.2mm machine guns; otherwise armament was unchanged. At the start of World War II, Italian destroyers (Italian: caccia-torpedinieri) were a mix of warships dating from old, World War I designs up to some of the most modern of their type in the world. [13], These four ships were commissioned between July and December 1937. See ww2 Italian destroyers. [6], Two, Bettino Ricasoli and Giovanni Nicotera, were sold to Sweden and transferred just as Italy declared war. The ships displaced 2,510 tonnes[2] as built. Soviet navy's destroyers were divided between the old WW1-era Novik type destroyers, the italian designed 1936 Gnevnyi class and the following proper Soviet classes like the Ognevoi which mirrored the American Gearing and left the fundations for the postwar Skoriy class. Throughout the long campaign in Italy, then through France and the Low Countries, the tank destroyer units had a number of moments to shine as tank destroyers; at Arracourt, in France, on September 19th 1944, the 704th TD battalion in support of the 4th Armored Division destroyed 15 tanks of the German 113th Panzer brigade while in a dense fog; during the Ardennes offensive … Apart of the WW1-era destroyers reclassified as TBs, those we are talking about are 1930s to 1940s TBs, namely the 600 tons Spica class (1934) of 30 ships, the Pegaso class of 840 tons (1936, 1575 tons fully loaded, well beyond the Washington treaty limits) four ships, and wartime Ciclone class (1942, 16x 910 tons ships) and smaller Ariete class (1943, 16x 745 tons ships). Others had their TTs rear bank replaced by two 37mm AA guns. If design only was a consideration, the Italians would win this match, with better looking, more modern ships. The Fleet Air Arm as it was known went to war with 190 airplanes in aircraft and seaplane carriers ; plus spotter float planes mounted on … In addition, these ships suffered from a lack of stability so grave that they had ballasts added to about 90 tons, curtailing their speed to 30-31 knots. Kawakaze), Ardimentoso (ex. Rosolino Pilo during the war (hence the “RP” on its hull). The 4 Folgore (Baleno, Fumine, Lampo, Folgore), launched in 1931 and completed the following year, were virtually identical to the Freccia, except that their width was further reduced to reach a greater speed, to the detriment of autonomy (less space for oil tanks), while even aggravating the defects of Freccia and instability. Weaponry was as for the Turbines, except that an improved version of the 120mm gun was installed (Ansaldo 1926 pattern). [7], Eight 1,700 tonne[2] Turbine class destroyers were commissioned in 1927 and 1928. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. The Navigatori class (12 ships, 1928-29) was meteoritic. German forces also recovered some Pz. M10 Tank Destroyer of the 818th Tank Destroyer Bn., supports 5th Infantry Division troops, near Fountainebleau, France, 23 August 1944. This is a list of destroyers of the Second World War.1234 The List of ships of the Second World War contains major military vessels of the war, arranged alphabetically and by type. The Sella had only one double turret and one single turret, but this was rectified in 1929. WW2 Italian Destroyers; WW2 Italian Submarines; Mare Nostrum “Mare Nostrum”: This ancient motto known to the Greeks Byzantines and Turks was the embodiment of the a navy dreamed by Mussolini. They were plenty space to improve antiaircraft and ASW weapons and to mount mine rails. Top speed: 36 knots Armament: 4 guns of 120 (2 × 2), 2 guns of 40, 2 of 13.2 AA, 6 TLT 533 mm (2 × 3) Crew: 179. Indeed a single destroyer division of 4 ships was able to carry some 1,200 troops and equipment in one night. Italian destroyers were to pay a high price for these oversights, but they fought bravely and doggedly. However, one of the second group was neither launched nor finished because of lack of equipment and men. They were all sunk in combat, except the Cascino and Montanari, scuttled in 1943 and 1944. And one single turret, but not exclusively so June – Italian destroyers were to pay a high price these. Was ceded to the Palestro class a broadside to six and suspended due steel! Destroyer HMS Khartoum off Eritrea in response to new French designs displaced 2,510 tonnes 2... Was used for many duties, starting as a target for Submarines in pola, then under construction Yarrow... Audace II, Sirtori, La Masa, Palestro, and CT Riva trigoso the desired speed serving a. 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